Women's gymnastics is an individual sport, where competitors perform strength and swing gymnastic elements on the carpet (floor) or on apparatus.
Gymnastics requires a high degree of joint mobility, dexterity and strength. Gymnastics itself as a discipline has been included in the program of the Summer Olympics since 1896; women's gymnastics since 1928.
Competitors perform routines for a maximum length of 90 seconds (balance beam and floor exercise). For individual routines they are evaluated with marks, the winner determined by the highest sum of marks. Women's competitions are divided into 3 basic competitions (individual apparatus, individual all-around and team all-around), according to the apparatus into 4 disciplines (vault, unven bars, balance beam and floor exercise).
Vault - The apparatus consists of a jump table, a springboard and a mat. The jump table is 120 cm long and 95 cm wide and is mounted on a stand that measures 125 cm. The exercise starts with a run-up which must not exceed a length of 25 meters, and continues with a bounce from the bridge with both feet. Subsequently, the competitor bounces off the body of the table with her hands and performs various acrobatic elements before landing on the mat behind the table. In particular, speed, jump height and overall dynamics are evaluated, as well as impact, body deflection from the axis, etc.
Uneven bars - consist of two bars of unequal height (150 cm and 230 cm high). The base of the bars consists of fiberglass logs covered with a beech veneer. The distance of the bars can be changed according to the physical propositions of the gymnast, from 130 cm to 180 cm. The height of both bars is normally constant and, if necessary, the height increase of the bars must be approved by the competition committee. The routine on the uneven bars consists of a lead with the help of a springboard, elements with movement around the bars (turns and giants), in which the position of the torso and legs is distinguished, elements with turns around the longitudinal axis, flight elements on one or between bars. The routine is usually finished with a dismount with salt element on the impact mat.
Balance beam - the apparatus consists of a crossbar 500 cm long and 10 cm wide, placed at a height of 125 cm above the ground. Sets include jumps, turns, rolls, flips, somersaults. Maintaining balance is difficult due to the narrow surface of the apparatus.
Floor exercise - the routine is on a sprung floor covered with a gymnastics mat with an area of 12x12 meters. The routine consists of a combination of dynamic (eg somersaults, somersaults, somersaults with several turns) and force (eg handstand, balance) acrobatic elements, which are performed individually or intensively one after the other. Women‘s routines are accompanied by music, unlike for men. Aesthetic expression is also evaluated.